A Brief History of Astronomy and Astrology

Astronomy is concerned with the observation of the motions of heavenly bodies, and reduces to mathematical order these observations. Astrology is the study of the effects the movements of these celestial bodies have on human affairs. By means of prolonged observation, the ancient astronomers were able to predict the recurrence of cosmic phenomena, and astrologers began to forecast the earthly events which coincided with these.

Astronomy is virtually surely as old as man’s conception of time itself. In the starting, astronomy was largely utilized to predict weather patterns and the most propitious time for sowing and planting crops. Later, these orbs of moving light the planets, had been believed to be gods, and the subsequent quest for divine information and facts was in all probability the beginning of astrology.

Ancient Origins

Astronomy-astrology is said to have originated with the Chaldeans, in Babylon, Mesopotamia, (now Iraq) about the fourth millennium BC. It was practiced in the temples, where it was blended with religious components. Later, yes or no horoscope spread to Egypt, and about the third millennium BC was obtaining applied by rulers to predict the fate of nations: war or peace, famine or lots.

The Chinese had been also skilled astronomers, and are believed to have independently begun to use sorts of prediction, along with the Maya of Central America and the peoples of ancient India. Some specialists think that Chinese astronomy may well extend as far back as 5000 BC.

Current researches into the Pyramids and Sphinx of Giza recommend that observation of heavenly bodies might have even extra distant origins. There is startling new proof that the principal Giza monuments kind an precise terrestrial “map” of the three stars of Orion’s belt as these constellations appeared in ten,500 BC.

Greek and Roman Instances

Substantially later, following the death of Alexander The Terrific, astrology started to influence Greek life, as Greeks and Orientals mingled in the kingdoms of the Seleucids and Ptolemy. It became an increasingly critical component of Greek and Roman life. The Stoic philosophers secularized this ancient art: Hippocrates, the “father of medicine” taught astrology to his students so that they could identify the important days in an illness and the poet Hesiod, who lived in the 8th century BC, wrote in his lengthy poem “Functions and Days” that the positions of the planets and stars really should actually be utilised to predict propitious situations at which to get began factors. Astrology reached its zenith in imperial occasions, was employed by men and females of just about every single social strata, and in truth, was a part of almost every single single branch of ancient culture.

About the 2nd century A. D. Ptolemy, a Greek scientist, wrote a colossal perform on astrology, which is divided into two components: The Almagest and The Tetrabiblos: The Almagest bargains with the movement of the Sun, Moon, and planets the Tetrabiblos with the interpretation of these movements as they have an effect on man and human events. These books are perhaps the most comprehensive written records of ancient astronomy and astrology that have remained to us, and are a compilation of performs from preceding centuries.

The Middle Ages

The tradition of Greek, Arabic and Medieval astrology which was inseparable from the parallel tradition of alchemy, believed that Man responds to certain indefinable energies or vibrations of the Sun, Moon and planets, and words still produced use of these days to define diverse human characteristics, such as mercurial, saturnine, lunatic, venereal, jovial, martial, came from the astrological-alchemical schools of the 13th to the 17th centuries, remaining a tribute to the function of these occasions.

The Age of Explanation

Astrology for centuries was utilized by kings, emperors, popes, scientists, medical doctors, the bourgeoisie and the poor alike, and collectively with astronomy was taught in the schools and universities of the globe. But, as with most challenges, it was destined to reach an interval in the affairs of men, and toward the close of the sixteenth century in Europe, astrology was losing ground even although in England it continued to flourish by way of most of the 17th century.

The components for the decline in astrology are varied. A new scientific age was dawning and with it an excessive demand for technical explanation-all the things not scientifically provable or rationally explicable was rejected, like astrology. The vast distance of the planets in among each other was located, and individuals started to say that these distances have been too great for any influences to attain earth. Also, the realization that the sun, and not the earth, was at the center of the solar technique somehow added to the devaluation of astrology-even although Sir Isaac Newton, and other folks, pointed out that astrology is about the connection in involving planets, and could therefore be valid no matter which heavenly body was at the center of the approach.

To add to all of this, an developing quantity of “quacks” appeared out to make swift earnings, mingling with the genuine astrologers, which could not have helped matters-and even though it is correct that there have commonly been consultant astrologers and their buyers-in Europe and in America, astrology for a extended period seemed to lie dormant, and was utilised for tiny a lot more than the publication of Almanacs for predicting the climate.

The Twentieth Century

It was the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that started the present revival of interest in Astrology. A great deal of this is owed to the terrific Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Gustave Jung, who made use of astrology in his analysis and wrote on the topic extensively, awakening at the similar time the interest of other scientists.

The English astrologer Alan Leo, and Russian, Madame Blavatsky did substantially for the resurgence of astrology in England and Germany. There had been other folks, as effectively, such as the American, Dane Rudhyar, who came to astrology by signifies of studies in music and philosophy, and wrote a useful carry out identified as “The Planetarization of Consciousness” in 1970. In this way astrology was revived in America, in France, and in Holland. Associations and schools for professional astrologers have been founded in America and in Britain, and nowadays astrology is once once again practiced in virtually each and every nation of the planet.